Signs of impaired kidney function

This is a disease that is difficult to recognize by external signs that usually progress silently over the years, most patients when discovered are usually in the late stage. So how do you recognize impaired kidney function?

The kidneys have important functions in the body, such as: Keeping the balance of fluids in the body; keep a mineral balance to maintain the normal functioning of organs; elimination of the body’s metabolic products (protein: urea, creatinine …); release necessary hormones into the bloodstream: EPO, Renin, activating vitamin D …

What causes impaired kidney function?

Acute renal failure is a syndrome of many different causes, common in emergency resuscitation. Specifically, functional acute renal failure (also known as pre-renal acute renal failure) is caused by a decrease in the filtration pressure in the glomerular capillaries due to arterial hypotension or strong contraction of the glomerular arterioles, reducing Renal blood flow. Physical Acute Renal Failure: Renal damage causes a sudden decline in kidney function (acute toxicity, necrosis of renal tissue). Obstructive acute renal failure (also called post-renal failure) is caused by obstruction of the passages excreted by kidney stones, ureteral stones.

Chronic Kidney Failure: Usually caused by patients with glomerulonephritis such as acute glomerulonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, glomerulonephritis due to systemic disease, metabolic glomerulonephritis. Or other diseases such as Chronic tubular-interstitial disease (due to infection or not due to infection), renal vascular disease (cirrhosis of the kidney, venous or arterial occlusion …), congenital kidney disease (disease polycystic kidney, kidney dysplasia, Alport syndrome), due to urinary stones …

Progression of the disease

Kidney failure is a state of impaired kidney function, mainly the function of excretion of waste products by the body after metabolism. In addition, for many cases of renal failure, especially chronic renal failure, other kidney functions are severely impaired such as fluid regulation, electrolytes, alkaline acidosis, stimulating hematopoiesis, and vitamin D synthesis. Impaired kidney function conditions include:

Acute Kidney Damage: Only impaired kidney function that lasts from a few hours to a few days, usually with an obvious cause. Acute kidney damage often has symptoms: fatigue, difficulty breathing, confusion, nausea, chest pain or tightness, swelling in the legs, ankles and around the eyes, too little amount of urine excreted from the body. Severe cases can cause seizures or lethargy. In some cases, acute kidney damage has no clinical signs or symptoms and can only be detected through tests at a hospital or health center.

Acute renal failure: Only acute kidney damage but there are indications of hemodialysis to handle complications, preserving the patient’s life. The initial symptoms of acute kidney failure are low or no urine output. Symptoms that worsen include Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. There are also other signs such as inability to sleep, seizures, drowsiness, lethargy, itching, high or low blood pressure, bruising or bleeding but of unknown cause …

Chronic Kidney Disease: Indicates a condition with persistent impairment of kidney function for at least 3 consecutive months, manifested by a urine abnormality, a picture of the kidney on a diagnostic medium, or histological abnormality during the biopsy. This is an irreversible condition, divided into 5 different stages depending on the remaining kidney function.

End-stage chronic renal failure: When renal function is severely reduced (based on estimated glomerular filtration rate – eGFR less than 15 ml/min), patients must receive kidney replacement therapy. Cycle dialysis and medications to replace kidney function. Symptomatic patient: decreased urine output; inability to urinate; fatigue, irritability; headache; unexplained weight loss; loss of appetite; nausea, vomiting; dry, itchy skin; changes in skin color; pain in the bones; Confused, difficult to concentrate …

Advice of physician

Acute kidney failure has a high mortality rate, but with timely diagnosis and treatment, kidney function can be completely or nearly completely reversed. Currently, the most effective treatment method is dialysis by artificial kidneys, combined with the treatment of the main disease. Once the cause of kidney damage is ruled out, kidney function can gradually return to normal or near normal. Therefore, when there are abnormal manifestations, medical facilities are needed to be examined and treated.

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